All Pharmacology Drugs Mnemonics:

Drug is the active ingredient of medicine. Human have many diseases and every disease have a specific drugs. It is very difficult for a doctors or other medical students to memorize drugs names properly. Therefore, doctors use pharmadrugs mnemonics for easy memorizing drugs. Not only names but also its side effects, contraindications as well as interactions. We upload some basic drugs mnemonics, that will help you alot in memorizing drugs names.cologypharmacology drugs mnemonics

Cardiology Mnemonics:

ACE inhibitors side efficts:

Mnemonic: CAPTOPRIL;

Drugs.

  • Cough
  • Angioedema
  • Proteinuria
  • Taste changes
  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • Pregnancy contraindication
  • Renal failure
  • Indomethacin
  • Leukopenia

Amiodarone- Action and side effects:

Mnemonic: 6P’s;

  • Prolongs actions potential duration
  • Photosensitivity
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis
  • Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited

Antiarrhythmics Class 1A:

Mnemonic: Double Quarter Pounder

  • D isopyramide
  • Quinidine
  • procainamide

Antiarrhythmics Class 1B:

Mnemonic: Lettuce Tomato Mayo Pickles

  • Lidocaine
  • Tocainide
  • Mexiletine
  • Phenytoin

Antiarrhythmics Class 1c:

Mnemonic: More Fires Please

  • Morcizine
  • Flecainide
  • Prppafenone

Antiarrhythmics Class iii:

Mnemonic: A Big Drooling Dog Is scary

  • Aminodarone
  • Bretylium
  • Dofetilide
  • Dronedarone
  • Ibutilide
  • Sotalol

Antiarrhythmics Class iv:

Mnemonic: Very Nice Drugs

  • Verapamil
  • Nifedipine
  • Diltiazem

Antiarrhythmics Classification 1 to IV:

Mnemonic: South Beach Polka (SoBE PoCa)

  • Sodium Channel (class 1)
  • beta blicker (class 2)
  • Potassium channel blocker
  • calcium channel blocker

Atropine Use – Tachycardia or bradycardia

Mnemonic: A goes with B

Atropine used clinically to treat bradycardia

Beta blockers:

B1 selective vs B1-B2 non selective

Mnemonic: A though N (B1 selective)

  • Acebutalol
  • Atenolol
  • Esmolol
  • Metoprolol

Mnemonic: O though Z ( B1, B2 Non-selective)

  • Pindolol
  • Propanalol
  • Timolol

Beta blockers Members:

Mnemonic: The NEPAL Prime Minister

  • Timolol
  • Nadolol
  • Esmolol
  • Pindolol
  • Atenolol
  • Labetalol
  • Propanolol
  • Metoprolol

Beta Blockers acting at myocardium:

Mnemonic: Beta blocker Exclusively Acting At Myocardium

  • Betaxolol
  • Esmolol
  • Acetutelol
  • Atenolol
  • Metoprolol

Beta Blockers Contraindications and cautions:

Mnemonic: ABCDE

  • Asthma
  • Block(heart block)
  • COPD
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Electrolyte(hyperkalemia)

Beta blockers side effects:

Mnemonic: BBC Loses Viewers In Rochedale

  • Bradycardia
  • Bronchoconstriction
  • Claudication
  • lipides
  • Vivid dreams & nightmares
  • -ve Inotropic action
  • Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycemia

Calcium channel blocker uses:

Mnemonic:CA++ MASH

  • Cerebral vasospasm
  • Angina
  • Migranes
  • Atrial flutter
  • Supra ventricular tachycardia
  • Hypotension

Drugs causing AV blocks

Mnemonic: Do Block AV, duh!

  • Digoxin
  • Beta blockers
  • Adenosine
  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: side effects, contraindications, interactions

Mnemonic: HMG-CoA

side effects

  • Hepatotoxicioty
  • Myositis

contraindications

  • girl during pregnancy
  • growing children

interactions

  • Coumarin
  • cyclosporine

Hypertension treatment:

Mnemonic: ABCD

  • ACE inhibitors
  • Beta blockers
  • calcium channel blockers
  • diuretics

Thrombolytics agents:

Mnemonic:USA

  • Urokinase
  • streptokinase
  • Alteplase

Endocrine drugs Mnemonics:

K+ increasing agents:

Mnemonic: K- BANK

  • K-sparing diuretics
  • beta blockers
  • ACE-I
  • NASID
  • K supplement

Gynecomastia causing drugs:

Mnemonic: DISCOS

  • Digoxine
  • Isonaizid
  • sprionolactone
  • cimeditine
  • Oestrogens
  • stilboestrol

Nervous system:

Parkinsonism Drugs:

Mnemonic: SALAD

  • Selegiline
  • Anticholineenergics
  • L-Dopa + peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors
  • Amantadine
  • Dopamine postsynaptics receptors agoniosts

Direct sympathomimetics catecholamines:

Mnemonic: DINED

  • Dopamine
  • Isoproterenol
  • Norepinephrine
  • Epinephrine
  • Dobutamine

drugs for Petit-mal seizures:

Mnemonic: VALET

  • VALproic acid
  • EThosuximide

Inhalation anesthetics:

Mnemonic: SHINE

  • Sevoflurane
  • Halothane
  • Isoflurane
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Enflurane

Migraine prophylaxis drugs:

Mnemonic: Very Volatile Pharmacotherapeutics Agents For Migraine Prophylaxis

  •  Verepamil
  • Valproic cacid
  • Pizotifen
  • Amitriptyline
  • Flunarizine
  • Methysergide
  • Propanolol

Tricyclic antidepressants:

Mnemonic: I have to hide, the CIA and DNA is after me

  • Clomipramine
  • Imipramin
  • Amitrptyline
  • Desipramine
  • Doxepin

Pulmonary Drugs:

Tuberculosis treatment:

Mnemonic: STRIPE

  • STreptomycine
  • Rifampicine
  • Isoniazid
  • Pyrizinamide
  • Ethambutol

Renal Drugs:

Diuretics groups:

Mnemonic: Leak Over The CAN;

  • Loop diuretics
  • Osmotic
  • Thiazides
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  • Aldosterone inhibiotors
  • sodium channel blockers

Osmotics diuretics:

Mnemonic: GUM;

  • Glycerol
  • Urea
  • Mannitol

SIADH-Inducing drugs:

Mnemonic: ABCD

  • Analgesics-opoiids, NASID’s
  • Barbiturates
  • Cyclophosphamide/chlorpromazine
  • Diuretics(thiazide)

Others Pharmacology Mnemonics:

RTI: drugs to treat viral respiratory infections “You’d get
respiratory infection if you shoot an ARO (arrow) laced with 
viruses
 into the lungs“:
Mnemonic: ARO:
Amantadine
Rimantadine
Oseltamivir

Medication administration: short checklist

Mnemonic: TRAMP:
· Before dispensing medication, ensure have correct:
Time
Route
Amount
Medication
Patient

Opiates: overdose findings

Mnemonic: “Cool to the touch, unresponsive
to pain,
Hunger diminished, and scars over vein.
Pupils pinpointed, and blood pressure low,
Urine diminished, and breathing is slow.”

Cocaine: cardiovascular effect COcaine causes blood
vessels to
COnstrict (unlike other local anesthetics which cause vasodilation).

Aminoglycosides: common characteristics(Mnemonic:) AMINO:
Active Against Aerobic gram negative
Mechanism of resistance are Modifying enzymes
Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30S subunit
Nephrotoxic
Ototoxic

Sulfonamides: common characteristics

Mnemonic: SULFA:
Steven-Johnson syndrome/ Skin rash / Solubility low
Urine precipitation/ Useful for UTI
Large spectrum (gram positives and negatives)
Folic acids synthesis blocker (as well as synthesis of nucleic acids)
Analog of PABA

Diuretics: groups

Mnemonic:Leak Over The CAN“:
Loop diuretics
Osmotics
Thiazides
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Aldosterone inhibitors
Na (sodium) channel blockers
· Note: “leak” is slang for urination and “can” is slang for a toilet.

Thalidomide: effect on cancer cells

Mnemonic:“Thalidomide
makes the blood vessels hide“:
Use thalidomide to stop cancer cells from growing new blood vessels.

Tuberculosis: treatment

Mnemonic: If you forget your TB drugs, you’ll
die and might need a PRIEST“:
Pyrazinamide
Rifampin
Isoniazid (INH)
Ethambutol
STreptomycin

Warfarin: interactions

Mnemonic:  ACADEMIC QACS:
Amiodarone
Cimetidine
Aspirin
Dapsone
Erythromycin
Metronidazole
Indomethacin
Clofibrates
Quinidine
Azapropazone
Ciprofloxacin
Statins

Patent ductus arteriosus: which prostaglandin keeps it open
Mnemonic: kEEp opEn with prostaglandin E.

Carbamazepine (CBZ): use

Mnemonic: CBZ:
Cranial Nerve V (trigeminal) neuralgia
Bipolar disorder
Zeisures

Morphine: side-effects

Mnemonic:MORPHINE:
Myosis
Out of it (sedation)
Respiratory depression
Pneumonia (aspiration)
Hypotension
Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)
Nausea
Emesis

Corticosteroids: adverse side effects

Mnemonic: CUSHINGS BAD MD:
Cataracts
Up all night (sleep disturbances)
Suppression of HPA axis
Hypertension/ buffalo Hump
Infections
Necrosis (avascular)
Gain weight
Striae
Bone loss (osteoporosis)
Acne
Diabetes
Myopathy, moon faces
Depression and emotional changes

Tricyclic antidipressents (TCA): side effects

Mnemonic: TCA’S:
Thrombocytopenia
Cardiac (arrhymia, MI, stroke)
Anticholinergic (tachycardia, urinary retention, etc)
Seizures

Bromocriptine [for USA gang members]

Mnemonic:The CRYPTS are
an LA street gang that likes to smoke DOPE.
BromoCRYPTine is a DOPamine agonist.

Microtubules: drugs that act on microtubules.

Mnemonic:The 
M
icroTubule Growth Voiding Chemicals”:
Thiabendazole
Mebendazole
Taxol
Griseofulvin
Vincristine/ Vinblastine
Colchicine

Insulin: mixing regular insulin and NPH

Mnemonic:Not Ready,
Ready Now”:
Air into NPH
Air into Regular
Draw up Regular
Draw up NPH

Benzodiazepins: 3 members that undergo extrahepatic metabolism
Mnemonic: Outside The Liver”:
Oxazepam
Temazepam
Lorazepam
These undergo extrahepatic metabolism and do not form active metabolites.

Guanethidine: mechanism (norepinephrine) release.

Mnemonic:GuaNEthidine prevents NE

Parasympathetic vs. sympathetic neurotransmitters

Mnemonic: “No
sympathy for a Pair of Aces”:
Norepinephren is secreted in by the Sympathetic nervous system
while Acetylcholine is secreted in the Parasympathetic nervous
system.

Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta ABCD:
Alpha = Constrict.
Beta = Dilate.

Beta 1 selective blockers

Mnemonic: BEAM ONE up, Scotty”:
Beta 1 blockers:
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metropolol

Opiods: mu receptor effects

Mnemonic:MD CARES“:
Miosis
Dependency
Constipation
Analgesics
Respiratory depression
Euphoria
Sedation

Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA

Mnemonic:  ABCDEF:
Alkylating agents
Bleomycin
Cisplastin
Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin
Etoposide
Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen,
leuprolide)

Busulfan: features

Mnemonic: ABCDEF:
Alkylating agent
Bone marrow suppression s/e
CML indication
Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e
Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e
Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e

Asthma drugs: leukotriene inhibitor action

Mnemonic:

zAfirlukast:
Antagonist of lipoxygenase
zIlueton: Inhibitor of LT receptor

Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing( APACHE:Mnemonic:)
Amiodarone
Procainamide
Arsenium
Cisapride
Haloperidol
Eritromycin

Serotonin syndrome: components Causes (HARM Mnemonic:)
Hyperthermia
Autonomic instability (delirium)
Rigidity
Myoclonus

Beta blockers: B1 selective vs. B1-B2 non-selective A
through N: B1 selective
: Acebutalol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol.
O through Z: B1, B2 non-selective:Pindolol, Propanalol, Timolol.

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects,
contraindications, interactions
 HMGCoA:
· Side effects:
Hepatotoxicity
Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis]
· Contraindications:
Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children
· Interactions:
Coumarin/ Cyclosporine

Therapeutic index: formula TILE:
TI = LD50 / ED50

Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members CHAMP:
Cyclophosphamide
Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine
Auranofin and other gold compounds
Methotrexate
Penicillamine

Auranofin, aurothioglucose: category and indication Aurum
is latin for “gold” (gold’s chemical symbol is Au).
Generic Aur- drugs (Auranofin, Aurothioglucose) are gold
compounds.
· If didn’t learn yet that gold’s indication is rheumatoid arthritis, AUR- Acts
Upon Rheumatoid.

MAOIs: indications MAOIS:
Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression]
Anxiety
Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia]
Imagined illnesses [hypochondria]
Social phobias
· Listed in decreasing order of importance.
· Note MAOI is inside MelAnchOlIc.

SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD:
Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
Barbiturates
Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
Diuretic (thiazide)

Diuretics: thiazides: indications “CHIC to use
thiazides”:
CHF
Hypertension
Insipidous
Calcium calculi

Ribavirin: indications RIBAvirin:
RSV
Influenza B
Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.)

Morphine: effects at mu receptor PEAR:
Physical dependence
Euphoria
Analgesia
Respiratory depression

Thrombolytic agents USA:
Urokinase
Streptokinase
Alteplase (tPA)

Anticholinergic side effects “Know the ABCD’S of
anticholinergic side effects”:
Anorexia
Blurry vision
Constipation/ Confusion
Dry Mouth
Sedation/ Stasis of urine

Teratogenic drugs “WTERATOgenic”:
Warfarin
Thalidomide
Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine
Retinoid
ACE inhibitor
Third element: lithium
OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)

Epilepsy types, drugs of choice

Mnemonic: “Military General
Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing ‘Veni
Vedi Veci’ After Crushing Enemies”:
· Epilepsy types:
Myoclonic
Grand mal
Atonic
West syndrome
Focal
Petit mal (absence)
· Respective drugsy:
Valproate
Valproate
Valproate
ACTH
Carbamazepine
Ethosuximide

Respiratory depression inducing drugs

Mnemonic:STOP
breathing”:
Sedatives and hypnotics
Trimethoprim
Opiates
Polymyxins

Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs

Mnemonic:Go BAN Me!”:
Gold
Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU
Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine
Nitrofurantoin
Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide

Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in
liver failure)
 LOT:
Lorazepam
Oxazepam
Temazepam

Vigabatrin: mechanism Vi-GABATrIn:
ViGABA Transferase Inhibition

Propythiouracil (PTU): mechanism It inhibits PTU:
Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination
Tyrosine iodination
Union (coupling)

Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action,
monitoring
 EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.
Monitor Xaconcentration, rather than APTT.

Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers

Mnemonic:Tim Pinches
His Nasal Problem” (because he has a runny nose…):
Timolol
Pindolol
Hismolol
Naldolol
Propranolol

Nicotinic effects

Mnemonic:MTWTF.
Mydriasis/ Muscle cramps
Tachycardia
Weakness
Twitching
Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia
Fasiculation

Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM:
Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
Lacrimation
Urination
Gastrointestinal upset
Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
Miosis

Phenytoin: adverse effects

Mnemonic: PHENYTOIN:
P-450 interactions
Hirsutism
Enlarged gums
Nystagmus
Yellow-browning of skin
Teratogenicity
Osteomalacia
Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)
Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, headache

Diuretics classification in order of site of action

Mnemonic:  “COLT
P
ee:”
· In their sequential site of action along the nephron:
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (at the proximal tubule)
Osmotic diuretics (at the Loop of Henle)
Loop diuretics (at the ascending loop)
Thiazides (at the distal tubule)
Potassium-sparing diuretics (at the collecting tubules)
· Diuretics make patient pee like a horse, hence “Colt Pee”.

Aspirin: side effects

Mnemonic:  ASPIRIN:
Asthma
Salicyalism
Peptic ulcer disease/ Phosphorylation-oxidation uncoupling/ PPH/
Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA
Intestinal blood loss
Reye’s syndrome
Idiosyncracy
Noise (tinnitus)

Clopidogrel: use( Mnemonic:) CLOPIdogrel is a drug that prevents
CLots, an Oral Platelet Inhibitor (OPI).

Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibiotics

Mnemonic: TAP CAP:
Thalidomide
Androgens
Progestins
Corticosteroids
Aspirin & indomethacin
Phenytoin

Physostigmine vs. neostigmine LMNOP:
Lipid soluble
Miotic
Natural
Orally absorbed well
Physostigmine
· Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:
Water soluble
Used in myesthenia gravis
Synthetic
Poor oral absorption

Prazocin usage Prazocin sounds like an acronym of “praszz
zour urine”.
Therefore Prazocin used for urinary retention in BPH.

Steroid side effects

Mnemonic: CUSHINGOID:
Cataracts
Ulcers
Skin: striae, thinning, bruising
Hypertension/ Hirsutism/ Hyperglycemia
Infections
Necrosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head
Glycosuria
Osteoporosis, obesity
Immunosuppression
Diabetes

Beta blockers with CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism

Mnemonic: “I Met
Tim Carve
r, the metabolic polymorph”:
· The following beta blockers require dose adjustment due to CYP2D6 polymorphic
metabolism:
Metoprolol
Timolol
Carvedilol
(in patients with lower or higher than normal CYP2D6 activity)

Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart
that rolls on pinwheels.
Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively,
making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact
that they are non-seletive beta blockers.

Morphine: effects MORPHINES:
Miosis
Orthostatic hypotension
Respiratory depression
Pain supression
Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations
Increased ICT
Nausea
Euphoria
Sedation

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: members “PIT of
despair”:
Phenelzine
Isocarboxazid
Tranylcypromine
· A pit of despair, since MAOs treat depression.

Antimuscarinics: members, action “Inhibits Parasympathetic
And Sweat”:
Ipratropium
Pirenzepine
Atropine
Scopolamine
· Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in
sympathetic.

Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment “Come In and 
Close
 the door”:
INdomethacin is used to ClosePDA.

Etoposide: action, indications, side effect

Mnemonic: “eTOPoside”:
· Action:
Inhibits TOPoisomerase II
· Indications:
Testicular carcinoma
Oat cell carcinoma of lung
Prostate carcinoma
· Side effect:
Affects TOP of your head, causing alopecia

Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy

Mnemonic:  MCAT:
Metronidazole
Chloramphenicol
Aminoglycoside
Tetracycline

Lithium: side effects

Mnemonic:  LITHIUM:
Leukocytes Increased (leukocytosis)
Tremors
Hypothyroidism
Increased Urine
Moms beware (teratogenic)

Quinolones [and Fluoroquinolones]: mechanism

Mnemonic: Topple
the Queen“:
Quinolone interferes with Topoisomerase II.

MPTP: mechanism, effect

Mnemonic: MPTP:
Mitochondrial Parkinson’s-Type Poison.
· A mitochondrial poison that elicits a Parkinson’s-type effect.

Sulfonamide: major side effects · Sulfonamide side
effects:
Steven-Johnson syndrome
Skin rash
Solubility low (causes crystalluria)
Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of
other serum albumin-binders like warfarin)

Benzodiazepenes: antidote

Mnemonic: Ben is off with the
flu“:
Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.

Narcotics: side effects

Mnemonic: SCRAM if you see a drug
dealer”:
Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
Constipation
Respiratory depression
Addiction
Miosis

Sex hormone drugs: male

Mnemonic: Feminine Males Need
Testosterone“:
Fluoxymesterone
Methyltestosterone
Nandrolone
Testosterone

Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolism

Mnemonic: I‘m
Overly Calm”:
Isoniazid
Oral contraceptive pills
Cimetidine
· These drugs increase calming effect of BZDs by retarding metabolism.

Tetracycline: teratogenicity TEtracycline is a
TEratogen that causes staining of
TEeth in the newborn.

Warfarin: metabolism

Mnemonic: SLOW:
· Has a slow onset of action.
· A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though.
Small lipid-soluble molecule
Liver: site of action
Oral route of administration.
Warfarin

Myasthenia gravis: edrophonium vs. pyridostigmine eDrophonium
is for Diagnosis.
pyRIDostigmine is to get RIDof symptoms.

Narcotic antagonists The Narcotic Antagonists
are NAloxone and NAltrexone.
· Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.

Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored
medications

Mnemonic: “The magic 2s”:
Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2.
Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2.
Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200.

Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS:
Bradycardia & hypotension
Anorexia
Diminished pupilary size
Analgesics
Miosis
Euphoria
Respiratory depression
Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
Constipation
Ameliorate cough reflex
Nausea and vomiting
Sedations

Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
Theophylline
Ethanol
Corticosteroids
H2 blockers
Antiparkinsonian drugs
Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
Geriatric psychiatric drugs
ENT drugs
Insomnia drugs
NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
Muscle relaxants
Seizure medicines

Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs “PM PMT” as
in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
Procarbazine
Metronidazole
Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).

Zafirlukast, Montelukast, Cinalukast: mechanism, usage “Zafir-lukast,
Monte-lukast, Cina-lukast“:
· Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma.
· Dazzle your oral examiner: Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4.

4-Aminopyradine (4-AP) use “4-AP is For AP“:
For AP (action potential) propagation in Multiple Sclerosis.

Vir-named drugs: use “-vir at start, middle or end
means for virus”:
· Drugs: Abacavir, Acyclovir, Amprenavir, Cidofovir,
Denavir, Efavirenz, Indavir, Invirase, Famvir,
Ganciclovir, Norvir, Oseltamivir, Penciclovir,
Ritonavir, Saquinavir, ValacyclovirViracept, 
Vir
amune, Zanamivir, Zovirax.

Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
Anemia (hemolytic anemia)

Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
Buffalo hump
Easy bruising
Cataracts
Larger appetite
Obesity
Moonface
Euphoria
Thin arms & legs
Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
Avascular necrosis of femoral head
Skin thinning
Osteoporosis
Negative nitrogen balance
Emotional liability

Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
Mental retardation
Electrolyte imbalance
Tolerance
Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
psYcological upset
Lactation in female
Dry mouth
Oedema
Parkinsonism
Anaemia (haemolytic)

Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
Vomiting
Alopecia
Liver toxicity
Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
Retention of fats (weight gain)
Oedema (peripheral oedema)
Appetite increase
Tremor
Enzyme inducer (liver)

Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects CAPTOPRIL:
Cough
Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis
Proteinuria/ Potassium excess
Taste changes
Orthostatic hypotension
Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop
(first dose hypertension)
Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash
Indomethacin inhibition
Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity

Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
Anemia
Basophilic stripping
Colicky pain
Diarrhea
Encephalopathy
Foot drop
Gum (lead line)

Lupus: drugs inducing it HIP:
Hydralazine
INH
Procanimide

Lithium: side effects LITH:
Leukocytosis
Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
Tremor/ Teratogenesis
Hypothyroidism

SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
Serotonin syndrome
Stimulate CNS
Reproductive disfunctions in male
Insomnia

Metabolism enzyme inducers “Randy’s Black Car
Goes Putt Putt and Smokes“:
Rifampin
Barbiturates
Carbamazepine
Grisoefulvin
Phenytoin
Phenobarb
Smokingcigarettes

Phenobarbitone: side effects Children are annoying (hyperkinesia,
irritability, insomnia, aggression).
Adults are dosy (sedation, dizziness, drowsiness).

Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects If you know
these, you will be Mnemonic: LESS DUMB“:
Lacrimation
Excitation of nicotinic synapses
Salivation
Sweating
Diarrhea
Urination
Micturition
Bronchoconstriction

Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body

Mnemonic: “Stick
it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it”:
Stick = Injection
Sniff = inhalation
Suck = ingestion
Soak = absorption

Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
Propranolol
Reserpine
Oral contraceptives
Methyldopa
Steroids

Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis ”

Mnemonic:Very
Angry Hepatocytes”:
Valproic acid
Acetaminophen
Halothane

Warfarin: action, monitoring

Mnemonic:  WePT:
Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT.

Beta-blockers: side effects

Mnemonic:BBC Loses Viewers
IRochedale”:
Bradycardia
Bronchoconstriction
Claudication
Lipids
Vivid dreams & nightmares
-ve Inotropic action
Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia

Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones)

Mnemonic: PEAZ
(sounds like pees) out a constant amount”:
Phenytoin
Ethanol
Aspirin
Zero order
· Someone that pees out a constant amount describes zero order kinetics (always
the same amount out)

Benzodiazepines: actions

Mnemonic: Ben SCAMs Pam into
seduction not by brain but by muscle”:
Sedation
anti-Convulsant
anti-Anxiety
Muscle relaxant
Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity.

Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location

Mnemonic: “You have 1 heart
and 2 lungs“:
Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart.
Beta-2 primarily on lungs.

Cisplatin: major side effect, action

Mnemonic:  “Ci-SplatIn“:
Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)–vomiting so severe that
anti-nausea drug needed.
Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.

Pupils in overdose: morphine vs. amphetamine

Mnemonic:“MorPHINE:
Fine. AmPHETamine: Fat“:
Morphine overdose: pupils constricted (fine).
Amphetamine overdose: pupils dilated (fat)..

Reserpine action Reserpine depletes the 
Reser
ves of catecholamines [and serotonin].

Botulism toxin: action, related bungarotoxin Action: “Botulism
Bottles up the Ach so it can’t be the released”:
Related bungarotoxin: “Botulism is related to Beta Bungarotoxin
(beta-, not alpha-bungarotoxin–alpha has different mechanism).

Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle:
iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.

Bleomycin: action

Mnemonic: BleoMycin Blow
My
 DNA to bits”:
Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits).
MyDNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells).

Propranolol and related ‘-olol’ drugs: usage “olol
is just two backwards lower case b’s.
Backward b’s stand for “beta blocker”.
· Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol,
oxprenolol, propranolol.

Succinylcholine: action, use Succinylcholine gets 
Stuck
 to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore.
You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation.

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